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Sectarian Manifesto, 4Q394-399

This text may have some spelling errors due to the nature of the OCR process.

MMT (Miqsat Ma'ase Ha- Torah) - Some Observances of the Law




(The fragmentary calendar is presented in five parallel columns which originally covered eighteen lines. Hence the end of the calendar at the top of 4Q394 3-7 i is listed as lines 19 to 21 by Qimron-Strugnell. Whether this calendar is part of the original MMT or is merely copied on the same scroll is uncertain.)

I [On the sixteenth of it (of the second month); sabbath.]

On the twenty-third of it: sabbath.

[On] the thir[tie]th [of it: sabbath.

On the seventh of the third month: sabbath.

On the fourteenth of it: sabbath.

On the fifteenth of it: Feast of Weeks.

On the twenty-] II [f|irs[t] of it: sabbath.

[On] the twenty-eighth of it: sabbath.

The first of the sabbath (=Sunday), and the secon[d da]y (=Monday)

[and the third are to be added.

And the season is complete: ninety-one days.

The first of the fourth month: Memorial day.

On the fourth] III of it: [sabbath.]

On the eleventh] of it: sabbath.

On the eighteenth of it: sabbath.

On the twenty-fifth of it: sabbath.

On the second of the fifl[h] (month): [sa]bb[ath.

On the third of it: Feast of Wine, first of sabbath (Sunday).]

IV [On the ninth of it: sabbath.]

On the sixteenth of it: sabbath.

On the twenty-third of it: sabbath.

[On the th]irtieth [of it: sabbath.

On the seventh of the sixth (month): sabbath.

On the fourteenth of it: sabbath.

On the twenty-first] V of it: sabbatli.

On the twenty-second of it: Feast of Oil, fir[st of sabjbath (Sunday). Af[ten/vards]: offering of Wood].

403943-71 i

(19) [The (twenty)-eighth of it (of the twelfth month)]: sabbath.

The first [of the] s[abbath (=Sunday) and the second day (=Monday) and the third are to be ad]ded to it. (20) And the year Is complete: three-hundred and si[xty-four] (21) days, vacat


(4Q394 3-7 i conflated with 4Q395)

(I) These are some of our teachings [ ] which are [ (2) the] works which w[e think and a]il of them concern [] (3) and the purity of…

[And concerning the offering of the wh]eat of the [Gentiles which they …](4) and they touch It … and de[fiie it … One should not accept anything] (5) from the wtieat [of the Gen]tiies [and none of It is] to enter the Sanctuary.

[And concerning] {the sacrifice} (4Q395) … (6) which they cook in a vessel … {in it} (4Q395) (7) the meat of their sacrifices and that they … in the courtyar[d …] {it} (4Q395) (8) with the broth of their sacrifice.

And concerning the sacrifice of the Gentiles … [we consider that] they {sacrifice} (4Q395) (9) to [an idol and] that is [like] a woman fornicating with him.

… (the sacrifice} (4Q395) (10) of peace-off[erings] which they postpone from one day to the next. But [it is written (cf Lev. 7:15)] (II) that the meai-offe[ring] (is eaten} (4Q395) with the fat and the meat on the day of [their] being sacrifi[ced. For the sons] (12) of the priest[s] {are to take care of this matter} (4Q395) so as not to (13) burden the

people with sin.

{And concerning the purity of the heifer of the sin-offering) (4Q395), (14) he who slaughters it and he who burns it and he who collects {its ashes and he who sprinkles the} (4Q395) [water] (15) of purification - all these {are to be pure} (4Q395) at sunset (16) so that the pure shall sprinkle the impure. For the sons

(4Q394 3-7 ii conflated with 4Q395)

(17) {of Aaron are to be} (4Q395) …

And furthermore (18) [conceming the sk]ins of the cattle [and the sheep … from] (19) their [skin]s vessel[s … [they are not to (20) bring] them to the Sanctuary …

(4Q397 1-2 conflated with 4Q398 1-3)

(21) …

And furthermore concerning the skin[s and bones of unclean animals, they shall not make from their bones] and from their s[k]i(ns]

(22) handles of v[essels and] …

And furthermore [concerning the sjkin of the carcass (23) of a clean [animal], he who carries their carcass shall not touch the [sacred] purity.

(24) And concerning … (25) …

(4Q394 3-7 ii conflated with 4Q397 3)

[the sons of] (26) the pri[es]ts are to [be care]f[ul] regarding {all these matters} (4Q397 3) so as not (27) to burden the people with sin.

[And concerning that which is written, [If a man slaughters in the camp or (28) slaughters] outside the camp an ox or a lamb or a goat (Lev. 7:13) for … {on the northern side of the camp} (4Q397 3). (29) And we consider the Sanctuary [as the tent of meeting and

Je]rusale[m] as (30) the {camp and out[side] the] (4Q397 3) camp [i.e. outside Jerusalem], that is the camp (31) of their towns. Outside the camp … they bring out the ashes [(32) of the] aitar and they burn … For Jerusalem] is the piace which (33) [He has chosen] {from aii the tri[bes of Israel]} (4Q397 3) …

(4Q396 1-2 i conflated with 4Q394 8 iii and 4Q397 5)

(35) … they [do no]t slaughter in the Sanctuary.

(36) [And concerning pregnant animals] {we consider} (4Q397 5) [that one should not sacrifice] the mother and the unborn young on the same day.

(37) [And concerning eating, w]e consider that the unborn young (38) may be eaten … (provided it has been slaughtered) … [this is] so and the saying is written concerning a pregnant animal, vacat

(39) [And concerning the Ammon]{ite and the Moabite} (4Q394 8 iii) and the {bastard} (4Q397 5) [and the man whose testicles] have been crushed [and one] whose penis [has been cut off] who enter (40) the congregation, [… and] they [ta]ke [wives so as to be] {one} (4Q397 5) bone (with them) … (41)…

(4Q394 8 iii conflated witli 4Q396 1-2 i-ii and 4Q397 5) (42) {impurities.

And furthermore we consider} (4Q397 5) (43) [that they should not … and should not have intercour]se with them. (44) [… and tfiey should] {not unite with them} (4Q397 5) so as to make them (45) [into one bone (46) … that some of the people … (47) … (48) {from all} (4Q397 5) (sexual) mingling (49) … {and to be fearful of the Sanctuary} (4Q396 1- 211).

(4Q396 1-2 11)

[And furthermore concerning] {the blind} (4Q394 8 iv) (50) who do not see how to beware of all minglpngs]

(4Q394 8 iv conflated with 4Q396 1-2 ii and 4Q397 6-13)

(51) and do not see the minglings which entail guilt (offering). (52) And furthermore concerning the deaf wfo have not heard the decrees and judgements and purity (rules) and have not (53) heard the judgements of Israel - for he who has not seen and has not heard (them) does not

(54) know how to practise (them); yet ttiey come to the pure food of the Sanctuary, vacat

(55) And furtfiermore conceming the pouring (of liquids), we say ttiat it contains no (56) purity.

And furtfiermore the pouring does not separate ttie impure (57) {from the pure} (4Q397 6-13) for the poured liquid and that in the receptacle are alike, (58) one liquid.

And {dogs} (4Q397 6-13) are not to be brought to the sacred camp for (59) they may eat some of the bones from the Sanctua[ry] to which meat is still attached. For (60) Jerusalem is {the sacred camp} (4Q397 6-13) and is the place

(4Q396 1-2 iii conflated with 4Q394 8 iv and 4Q397 6-13)

(61) which He has chosen from all the tribes of Israel, for Jerusalem is the head (62) of the camps of Israel.

And furthermore con[ceming the pljanting of fruit trees planted (63) in the land of Israel, they are like {firstfruits} (4Q397 6-13) destined for the {priests} (4Q397 6-13)- {And the tithe} (4Q394 8 iv) of the cattle (64) and sheep is for the priests.

And furthermore concerning the lepers, we (65) s[ay that they shall not cjome (into contact) with the sacred pure food for {they shall be} (4Q397 6-1 3) separated (66) …

Furthermore it is written tliat from the time he (the leper) has shaved and washed, he shall stay outside (67) … [for seven] days. ArxJ now whiie their Impurity Is with them … [they shall not (68) come Into contact w]ith the sacred pure food of the house. And you l


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